Vaccinations (Diseases)

Duration of Cover

One of the most common questions that we are asked by our patients is whether or not they are still covered by their previous vaccines. This is not as straightforward a question as there are a number of factors which always need to be taken into account when trying to advise if suitable cover is still in place.

Popular Vaccinations

  • Yellow Fever

    Yellow fever is a viral disease that has caused large epidemics in Africa and the Americas. Infection causes a wide spectrum of disease, from mild symptoms to severe illness and death.

  • Hepatitis A

    Unprotected travellers are at significant risk of Hepatitis A during their time abroad. The disease is serious in that those affected are frequently off work for up to 2 months.

  • Typhoid

    Typhoid is a bacterial disease transmitted through contaminated food and water. It is a very contagious disease and requires urgent treatment.

  • Tetanus

    Throughout the world there are thought to be at least 1 million cases each year. Cover against this disease should be considered for all travellers particularly those who will be undertaking an adventure style holiday.

  • Hepatitis B

    Hepatitis B is one of the range of viral diseases which affect the liver and it can cause long term morbidity as well as mortality in certain patients. A Hepatitis B vaccine is available.

  • Rabies

    Rabies is endemic in most areas of the world but is very common in the tropics where control of animals is limited. The major source of infection is through the bite of an infected animal.

Other Diseases/Vaccinations

  • Cholera

    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It has a short incubation period, from less than one day to five days. Cholera can lead to severe dehydration and death if treatment is not promptly given.

  • Diphtheria

    Diphtheria is found throughout the world but is more common in regions where immunisation programmes have been limited or withdrawn. The vaccine is one of the recommended vaccines for childhood.

  • Influenza

    There are 4 types of seasonal influenza viruses, types A, B, C and D. Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease. The flu vaccine is specific to each winter and should be taken between September and October for maximum protection.

  • Japanese B Encephalitis

    Japanese B Encephalitis is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Over 50,000 cases are reported to occur each year. The disease is found in over 25 countries throughout the world, mainly in South East Asia.

  • Malaria

    Each year this parasitic disease causes many deaths both in the tropics and among travellers returning to their home countries. In the majority of cases malaria is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito.

  • Measles / Mumps / Rubella

    Combined live vaccine for measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) is used widely for the immunization of children in certain regions of the world because of its advantages over the individual vaccines.

  • Meningococcal Meningitis

    Meningococcal meningitis occurs globally. Meningococcal meningitis is the only form of bacterial meningitis which causes epidemics. Travellers to areas affected by meningococcal outbreaks should be vaccinated

  • Pertussis

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is a highly contagious acute bacterial disease involving the respiratory tract. Exposure to pertussis is more frequent in developing countries. All infants should be immunized against pertussis.

  • Poliomyelitis

    This is a viral disease which is being controlled throughout the world by massive vaccination programmes. The global incidence of this disease is dropping significantly. There are two main vaccines used against this disease both of which work very well.

  • Tick Borne Encephalitis

    This viral disease is also called Central European Tick-Borne Encephalitis. It occurs in at least 18 central European countries. In general exposure risks are related to those spending time in more rural regions where they may run the risk of being bitten by an infected tick. Scouts and those planning to camp or trek rurally may need to consider vaccination cover.

  • Tuberculosis

    It is estimated that at least one third of the human population is infected with tuberculosis at any time. Even though this disease is found in every country throughout the world, it is estimated that over 90% of the world’s tuberculosis is confined to Africa, Central and South America, and Asia.

  • Covid-19

    COVID-19 is a respiratory illness spread through close contact with people who have the virus. People with the virus can spread it even if they do not have symptoms. When someone with the virus breathes, speaks, coughs or sneezes, they release small droplets containing the virus. You can catch COVID-19 if you breathe in these droplets or touch surfaces covered with droplets.