How to stay healthy on the road

Yellow Fever: Symptoms, Prevention, and Treatment

The Department for Health in the United Kingdom has been warning UK travellers of the rise in instances of yellow fever in popular holiday destinations. Parts of the Caribbean, Central & South American, and Africa have all been affected and the UK government is advising those travelling to those regions to get vaccinated before they do.

Yellow fever is a viral disease spread by mosquitoes in mainly tropical areas of the world. While it might sound like something from a history book, yellow fever still affects thousands of people every year. Understanding this disease is crucial for prevention and treatment.

What Causes Yellow Fever?

Yellow fever is caused by the yellow fever virus, which belongs to the Flaviviridae family. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected Aedes or Haemagogus mosquitoes. These mosquitoes breed in stagnant water found in urban and rural areas, especially during the rainy season. When a mosquito carrying the virus bites a human, it can spread the disease.

Symptoms of Yellow Fever

Symptoms of yellow fever typically appear three to six days after being infected. They start with a sudden onset of fever, headache, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting. These initial symptoms can be mistaken for other illnesses like the flu. However, some people may progress to a more severe form of the disease.

In severe cases, symptoms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), bleeding from the mouth, nose, eyes, or stomach, and organ failure. This severe form of yellow fever is often fatal if not treated promptly.

Yellow Fever Prevention

Preventing yellow fever involves both vaccination and avoiding mosquito bites. The yellow fever vaccine is highly effective and is typically recommended for travellers to areas where the disease is prevalent. For most who receive the vaccine for yellow fever, they will be protected for life.

To avoid mosquito bites, it’s essential to use insect repellent, wear long-sleeved shirts and pants, and sleep under mosquito nets, especially during peak mosquito activity times like dawn and dusk. Additionally, eliminating standing water around homes and communities helps reduce mosquito breeding sites.

Treatment for Yellow Fever

There is no specific antiviral treatment for yellow fever. Supportive care is crucial for managing symptoms and complications. This may include hydration, pain relief, and treatment for any secondary infections. Patients with severe yellow fever may require hospitalization for monitoring and intensive care.

Impact of Yellow Fever

Yellow fever can have a significant impact on public health, especially in endemic regions. Outbreaks can strain healthcare systems and disrupt communities. Additionally, the economic impact of yellow fever can be substantial due to healthcare costs, loss of productivity, and restrictions on travel and trade.

Global Efforts to Control Yellow Fever

Efforts to control yellow fever include vaccination campaigns, mosquito control measures, and surveillance to detect and respond to outbreaks promptly. The World Health Organization (WHO) leads global initiatives to prevent and control yellow fever, working with countries to improve vaccination coverage and strengthen healthcare systems.

For countries where yellow fever is prevalent, many require proof that you have received the yellow fever vaccine as a condition of entering that country. You should check the entry requirements for the country or countries you are travelling to.


Yellow fever is a serious viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical regions. While preventable through vaccination and mosquito control measures, it continues to affect populations in Africa and South America. Understanding the symptoms, prevention strategies, and treatment options is essential for protecting against yellow fever and reducing its impact on public health. Vaccination remains the most effective tool for preventing yellow fever, and efforts to improve vaccination coverage and mosquito control are critical for controlling the spread of the disease.

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