Yellow Fever is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Approximately 200,000 cases occur each year with the majority of these occurring in Africa. About 90% of all yellow fever cases are found in Africa. The disease occurs mainly in the western part of the sub-Sahara but occasionally in some of the eastern countries. In Africa reports are regularly received from Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Senegal, Mali etc. In South America reports are received from Brazil, Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Peru.
Transmission of yellow fever can occur in many of the hotter tropical and sub-tropical countries throughout the world. A country defined as ‘endemic’ means that the right conditions occur for the disease to be transmitted and that cases have occurred in the past. Asia does not have any transmission of this disease even though throughout the region there is the right climate, the correct mosquitoes and a very suitable environment for the disease to flourish. Because of this, the countries in Asia are very concerned about the introduction of the disease through infected international travellers.
The yellow fever vaccination is extremely effective and therefore, it is difficult to accurately estimate the current risk for the international traveller who will visit an infected country. Most transmission occurs in the forested regions of an infected country, but urban infections are now becoming more common. Each year unvaccinated European travellers develop the disease.
For entry into some countries it is essential to show proof of yellow fever vaccination, otherwise the traveller runs the risk of being detained at immigration and potentially of being vaccinated before being allowed to continue their journey. In many regions, the risk of contracting yellow fever is almost zero but, the immigration officials processing your paperwork may decide otherwise and it is for this reason that your Tropical Medical Bureau doctor may suggest cover against the disease.
The yellow fever vaccination is available at Tropical Medical Bureau travel health clinics around Ireland. Book your appointment today or contact us to find out if you require a yellow fever vaccination with our full pre-departure health screening service.
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